The Antennas module outputs the following results for each study at each frequency:• All antenna parameters including gain, directivity, efficiency, axial ratio, input impedance, etc
• Far field parameters including radiation patterns
• Generalized S-parameters matrix
• Re-normalized S-parameters matrix
• Unique impedance matrix
• Unique admittance matrix
• Propagation parameters at each port
• Impedances at each port
• Electric near field distribution
• Magnetic near field distribution
Scattering parameters or S-parameters (the elements of a scattering matrix or S-matrix) describe the electrical behaviours of linear electrical networks when undergoing various steady state stimuli by electrical signals. Although applicable at any frequency, S-parameters are mostly used for networks operating at radio frequency and microwave frequencies where signal power and energy considerations are more easily quantified than currents and voltages. S-parameters change with the frequency are readily represented in matrix form and obey the rules of matrix algebra.The HFWorks/S-parameters analysis belongs to the high frequency electromagnetic, or the full wave, regime, i.e. Maxwell’s displacement current that couples the electric and magnetic fields is significant and thus taken into consideration. The vector wave equation, i.e. combination of the full Maxwell’s equations, is solved using vector finite element to obtain the S-parameters and the electric/magnetic fields and related design parameters. It has many practical applications, including:
HFWorks is SolidWorks-embedded for high frequency applications. High frequency problems tend to be quite large because they are inversely proportional to the wavelength. Therefore, it is essential to take advantage of symmetry, when it exists, and apply the appropriate boundary condition. Several HFWorks users have asked for a clarification about this issue. There are two and only two types of symmetry B.C.:
Perfect magnetic conductor symmetry: applicable when the electric field is purely tangential, i.e. magnetic field is purely normal, on the plane of symmetry.
Perfect electric conductor symmetry: applicable when the electric field is purely normal, i.e. magnetic field is purely tangential, on the plane of symmetry.
Below is an illustration on a rectangular waveguide:
High frequency devices usually involve very thin conductor such as the printed traces in PCB and IC circuits. Actually even if they are not geometrically very thin, they are usually electrically so because at high frequencies, the wavelength is very small. Such thin conductors are difficult to mesh and could lead to a very large number of mesh elements. Fortunately, SolidWorks has a neat feature called split surfaces which consist of splitting a surface to one or more sub-surfaces. Hence, we recommend to not represent the thin conductors with any part or body. Simply split the upper surface of the substrate and apply the corresponding boundary condition just on the metallic split sub-surfaces. This trick minimizes the number of mesh elements considerably and gives accurate results.